In this post, the thermal power plant layout is discussed here and it comes under non renewable energy resources. Non renewable energy resources are also called conventional energy resources.
A short summary of the power generation thermal power plant:
The Thermal Power Plant (Steam power plant) is a conventional energy resources type.
The basic raw material used for power production is either coal or lignite. The coal or lignite is burnt in a furnace and steam will be produced from water as a result.
The Steam from the furnace will rotate the turbine and the generator which is coupled to the turbine will also rotate. Hence the power will be generated.
The generated power will usually be stepped up, transmitted and distributed. This was the summary of power production in a thermal power plant.
Let us now see in detail of various steps involved in power generation.
Generation of power in thermal power plant involves the following steps.
1. Coal and Ash Circuit
2. Air and Flue gas Circuit
3. Feed water and steam Circuit
4. Cooling Water Circuit
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Thermal Power Plant Layout
Coal and Ash Circuit:
The systems involved in this circuit are Coal handling, Coal storage, Ash handling, and Ash storage.
A coal or lignite from the mines is cultivated using a bucket-wheel. Then the coal is transferred to coal storage.
Generally, coal or lignite is transferred from one place to another place with the help of conveyor belt or screw conveyors, these all come under the Coal handling system.
Then the Coal is sent to storage, usually called as Silo. Then the coal from the Silo is taken and with the help of Conveyor belts, it is sent to Boiler Furnace. There the coal is burnt to a high temperature.
As a result, Ash will be produced and it will be deposited on a water resource so that it won’t fly and cause trouble, also it helps in cooling of ash. After few days ash will be sent to the nearer concrete factory and it will be blended with concrete.
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Air and Flue Gas Circuit:
The systems involved in this circuit are the Air filter, Air Preheater, Dust Collector, Chimney. The air from the atmosphere is sent to Air Preheater. After that, with the help air filter series dust from the air is removed.
The chimney will serve as a system to dispose of waste (exhaust gas). After the combustion process, the flue gas which has the sufficient quantity of heat is made to pass boiler tubes, dust collector, economizer and Preheater before passing out through a chimney.
The water and air get preheated by passing the flue gas around the economizer and Preheater. All these things will happen before going to the boiler.
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Feed Water and Steam Circuit:
The system involves the following boiler feed pump, boiler, turbine, and feedwater heaters.
The steam which was produced is passed through superheater and then to the steam turbine.
The steam turbine is coupled to the condenser where the steams exits. In the condenser, the steam is condensed. Then the condensate is heated through High-pressure and Low-Pressure heater.
In the economizer, the steam is further heated. There would a loss of water and steam while passing through different components, in order to compensate those losses feed water is supplied.
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The Cooling circuit consists of the cooling water pump, condenser, and cooling tower.
A massive amount of water is needed for condensing steam in the condenser.
A large supply of water can be from lakes or nearby rivers. If the enormous amount of water supply is not available means, the water coming out from the condenser can be cooled and reused.
Advantages of Thermal Power Plant:
1. The generation of power can be done according to Load forecasting.
2. If the power plant is located near to mines, transmission loss can be reduced.
3. The Thermal Power plant can be installed anywhere and raw material can be transferred through trucks.
4. It does not depend on nature, fully depends on coal or lignite reserves.
Disadvantages of Thermal Power Plant:
1. Raw Material will not last long also future generation will face issues on this.
2. Air Pollution serves as a major problem in a thermal power plant.
3. Power generation cost is high.
4. Need more manual work.
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