In this post, the Nuclear Power Plant diagram with components used in Nuclear Power Plant has been Provided. The layout of Nuclear power plant consists of a Nuclear Reactor, Steam Generator, Steam Turbine, and Condenser.
A short summary of the process involved in Nuclear Power Plant:
A Nuclear Power Plant also called Atomic Power Plant uses nuclear energy to generate the power. The main principle behind the nuclear power plant is the Controlled Chain reaction which liberates an enormous amount of energy and energy will convert water into a steam. The steam will rotate the turbine and shaft which is coupled to the Generator also rotates.
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The Main Components of Nuclear Power Plant ,
The layout of the Nuclear Power Plant
Let us see in detail about the main components of Nuclear Reactor.
The Reactor Core is a closed furnace where the entire nuclear fission reaction takes place. It consists of nuclear fuel, neutron moderator and space for coolant. A chain reaction is initiated by the nuclear bombardment. The nuclear fuel may be any one of the following U235, U233, Pu239. The Reactor Core is generally made up of a right circular cylinder with a diameter of about 15 meters. Usually, a fuel is filled for six months once. The fuel elements are usually made up of Uranium metal rods or plates. The arrangements were made in such a way that heat produced within the reactor is uniform.
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The Moderator helps to “slow down” the fast-moving neutrons. If moderator was not there, the fast-moving neutrons would try escape. If neutrons escape from the reactor, it will cause a serious problem. Water, Heavy water, Beryllium, Graphite, and Helium gas are commonly used moderators.
Characteristics of a Moderator:
→ High Thermal Conductivity.
→ High Corrosion Resistance.
→ Pure form.
→ Slow down neutrons.
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3. Control Rods:
The function of the Control Rods is
→ To control the reaction rate.
→ To shut down the reactor in case of an emergency.
To maintain the stability of chain reaction.
The Commonly used control rods are Cadmium, Hafnium, and boron. These control rods can absorb neutrons thereby controlling the rate of the chain reaction. These rods are mechanically moved by remote-controlled robots.
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Characteristics of control rods:
→ High thermal properties.
→ Highly resistant to corrosion.
→ Highly stable under radiation.
The reflector is a material which was placed around a core to reflect back the neutrons which are escaping from the core. The Reflector is usually made of the same materials as that of moderators. Water, Carbon. Graphite, beryllium is used as Reflectors.
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In order to reduce the heat produced inside the reactor coolants are used. Here the heat is transferred from one medium to another medium
The Coolant should have the following characteristics.
→ Low Melting Point.
→ High Boiling Point.
→ Low Viscosity.
→ High Density.
→ High Specific Heat.
Heavy Water or Light Water, Helium, CO2, Hydrogen are commonly used as a coolant.
Reactor Vessel only covers all components like a moderator, reflector, Shield, and control rods. At the top, it contains holes to insert the control rods and in the bottom, the reactor core is placed.
The Biological Shielding is provided to protect the reactor walls from radiation. For Biological shielding thick layers of lead, concrete or steel are provided all around the reactor. Gamma rays and neutrons are absorbed by these layers.
A good shielding material should have the following properties.
→ It should absorb α,β,γ rays.
→ It should possesses uniform density.
→ It should not be by radiation.
→ It should be highly fire resistant.