A DC generator is a generator that converts mechanical energy to direct current energy, and it can be used to send continuous power to power grids and electric storage instruments. It works using the principle of electromotive force, where a conductor moves through a magnetic field. Continue reading to learn all about DC generators.
What Is a DC Generator?
A DC generator is an electric generator. It converts mechanical energy into direct current electricity. The electrical current only flows in one direction, and the output current can only be induced in the rotor.
They are different from AC generators, which convert mechanical energy into electrical energy with an alternating current. An AC generator uses the principle of electromagnetic induction, while a DC generator uses the principle of energetically induced electromotive force.
DC generators are able to produce a large output range, and they are simple in design. They are also very reliable, and they have an efficiency rating of 85% to 95%. They are usually lightweight and compact, and they can provide constant output. They also have a high terminal load.
DC generators are used to provide lighting, charge batteries, and to provide excitation to alternators. They are used in DC motors when you need speed control. They can also be used as portable generators where a low power supply is required. They are also used in remote control toys as well as small appliances such as electric shavers. They are very useful for many different application.
How Does a DC Generator Work?
A primary DC generator is made up of a coil of wire that rotates in a magnetic field. It uses a split ring commutator in place of the two slip rings that AC generators use.
The DC generator has two main sections. One is a rotating section and the other is fixed in place. The stator is the part that is fixed. It is important because it has the magnetic fields that the coils spin around. The rotor or armature core is the rotating part, and it rotates in the magnetic field that is created by the stator.
DC generators produce a steady supply of direct current electricity as it spins around. The DC generator is similar to a DC motor and it uses a commutator. This is a metal ring with splits in it and it reverses the electrical contacts from the generator coil.
It reverses the current at the same time. It has a simple loop of wire and it will reverse the current at every half turn. It is designed to cancel out the effect of the rotation, which helps to ensure that a direct current is produced.
They are different from AC generators because AC generators use an alternator. They don’t have the commutator because they create alternating current. DC generators only send the current in one direction, so they are made to make sure that this is what happens.
Pros and Cons of a DC Generator
There are several advantages to using a DC generator, including the following:
- They have a simple design
- They can operate large motors and large electrical devices
- They reduce the motion by smoothing the output through the arrangement of the coils
There are also some disadvantages to using this type of generator.
- They are not efficient
- They can’t be applied to a transformer
- They have copper losses, eddy current losses, hysteresis losses, and mechanical losses
- They drop in voltage over long distances
These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a DC generator. They only produce a direct current, as opposed to an AC generator that produces an alternating current.
Types of DC Generators You Need to Know
Most electrical energy is created as an alternating current. However, DC generators create a direct current. They are used in different applications, and there are three different types of DC current generators, including separately excited DC generators, permanent magnet DC generators, and self-excited DC generators.
The self-excited DC generators are further classified according to the position of their field coils. These include compound-wound generators, shunt-wound generators, and series-wound generators.
A permanent magnet DC generator has a flux in the magnetic circuit that is created with permanent magnets. It is made of one armature and one or more permanent magnets. The magnets are placed around the armature. This type doesn’t create a lot of power, and they are usually used in dynamos in motorcycles and other small applications.
The separately excited DC generator has field magnets that are energized by an external DC source. This could be a battery, for example. The self-excited DC generators have field magnets that are energized by their own currents. In this type of generator, the field coils are connected internally to the armature.
The series-wound generator has field windings connected in a series with armature conductors. In this type, the electrical resistance is very low. This type of generator is used in DC locomotives and they can be used as a booster in networks that do distribution.
The shunt-wound DC generators have field windings that are connected with the armature conductors in parallel. The voltage in the field winding is equal to that in the terminal. This type of generator is often used to charge batteries and for lighting.
The compound-wound DC generator has both series field winding and shunt field winding. There is one winding that is with the armature, while the other is parallel to it. They can be used in lighting or for a heavy power supply, and they will be used in many places including homes, hotels, offices, and schools.
There are two types of generators, which include AC and DC generators. DC generators produce direct current electricity, and they only go in one direction. There are several types of DC generators, including the series-wound, the shunt-wound, and the compound-wound. The one you choose depends on what application you are using.